Billing with Stripe

This is a reference for the Stripe backend of the Tenant Billing Server. It covers the creation of a product, the pricing plans and adding customer subscriptions.


This is the reference for the gRPC and HTTP APIs that The Things Stack exposes.

Application Packages

Application packages specify state machines running both on the end device and the Application Server, as well as signalling messages exchanged between the end device’s application layer and the Application Server.

Command-Line Interface

This is the reference for the command-line interface of The Things Stack: ttn-lw-cli.


The Things Stack is composed of a number of components. The core components Network Server, Application Server and Join Server follow the LoRaWAN Network Reference Model. The Things Stack also contains an Identity Server, Gateway Server, Console and Command-line Interface.


The Things Stack binary can be configured with many different options. Those options can be provided as command-line flags, environment variables or using a configuration file.

Data Formats

The streaming data integrations provide multiple formats for the delivery of application uplink messages and downlink queue operations. This section will delve into the common formats used by them.

Email Templates

Email templates define the contents of the emails that The Things Stack sends to its users. They allow network operators to override the default contents of the emails with their own custom contents.

Federated Authentication New in 3.10

Federated Authentication allows network administrators to use the already existing identity providers in order to authenticate users, instead of manually creating and managing the accounts in The Things Stack.

Frequency Plans

This reference contains Frequency Plans that are officially supported by The Things Stack. This list is populated from the lorawan-frequency-plans Github repository. Deployments may also have custom frequency plans configured.


This reference contains common terms and definitions to help you find your way around The Things Stack.

ID and EUI Constraints

This reference explains how The Things Stack deals with IDs and EUIs, including regular expression requirements, uniqueness, and how deletion is handled.

Interoperability Repository

The Things Stack expects the root of interoperability repository to contain config.yml, which contains various interoperablity configuration options.


The Things Stack uses a port per protocol, with a TLS counterpart when applicable. Ports can be shared by multiple services using the same protocol, i.e. gRPC services sharing management, data and events services.

Packet Broker

Exchange traffic with other LoRaWAN networks via peering to share coverage and improve the overall network performance.

Root Certificates

This section contains links to common root SSL certificates used in The Things Stack, issued by trusted certificate authorities (CAs).


The Things Stack exports Prometheus telemetry on the /metrics endpoint. This reference gives an overview of the most important metrics.

Web UI Branding

This reference gives details on how to customize the branding of the login pages and the Console.